CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION IN LAND USE TRANSITIONS TO PLANTATION
Fahmuddin Agus1, Eleonora Runtunuwu1, Tania June2, Erni Susanti1, Herna Komara3,
Haris Syahbuddin1, Irsal Las1, and Meine van Noordwijk4
1Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development, Jalan Ir. H. Juanda No. 98, Bogor 16123 Telp. (0251) 8323012, 8327215, Faks. (0251) 8311256, E-mail:
2Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16002
3Directorate General of Plantation, Ministry of Agriculture, Jalan Harsono R.M. No. 3 Ragunan, Jakarta 12250
4World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Southeast Asia Regional Office, Jalan CIFOR, Sindangbarang, PO Box 161 Bogor 16001
Carbon dioxide emission assessment associated with land use transitions to agriculture is important for designing strategies in reducing green house gas emission. Net CO2 emissions is the sum of 1) the above ground biomass C loss of the initial land use because of land clearing, 2) the above ground C accumulation by the subsequent plantation crops, 3) soil organic matter decomposition, and 4) soil organic C burning if land management or land clearing involves fire. For mineral soils, in most cases, conversion of primary and secondary forests with time average C stocks of about 300 and 132 t/ha, respectively, results in a net C emission. However, if shrub or Imperata grassland, with respective C stocks of 15 and 2 t/ha is rehabilitated to plantation, it generally results in a net C sequestration. For peat soil, CO2 emission is caused by peat decomposition, peat burning (if any), and the aboveground C decomposition and/or burning. Rehabilitating peat shrub (with assumed C stock of about 15 t/ha and average drainage depth of 40 cm) instead of clearing peat forest (with assumed C stock of about 200 t/ha and drainage depth of 0) for agriculture reduces CO2 emissions of about 862 t CO2-e/ha/25 year (34 t CO2-e/ha/year) because of substantial reduction in the plant biomass and possible peat soil carbon loss due to burning. Peat shrub remains as peat shrub emits about 22 t CO2-e/ha/year. If peat shrub is rehabilitated to paddy field, rubber plantation or oil palm plantation, the emission levels become 11, 7, and 30 t CO2-e/ha/year, respectively. This means that rehabilitating peat shrub to paddy field or rubber plantation, results in net emission reduction of 11 and 15 t CO2-e/ha/year, respectively, whereas rehabilitating it to oil palm plantation increases net emission of only 8 t CO2-e/ha/year, relative to leaving the peat shrub as is. Therefore, new plantation development should be prioritized on mineral soils shrub and Imperata grasslands or on peat shrub as these conversions, in most cases, result in the net CO2 sequestration and potentially improve the livelihood of the communities.
Keywords: Carbon dioxide emission, carbon sequestration, land use transition, plantations, peatlands, mineral soils
ANALISIS FINANSIAL DAN KEUNTUNGAN YANG HILANG DARI PENGURANGAN EMISI KARBON DIOKSIDA
PADA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT
Herman1, Fahmuddin Agus2, dan Irsal Las2
1Lembaga Riset Perkebunan Indonesia, Jalan Salak No. 1A, Bogor 16151
Telp. (0251) 8333382, Faks. (0251) 8315985, E-mail:
2Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Jalan Ir. H. Juanda No. 98, Bogor 16123
Telp. (0251) 8323012, Faks. (0251) 8311256, E-mail:
Areal perkebunan kelapa sawit meningkat tajam dengan laju rata-rata 12,30%/tahun sejak 1980. Perluasan perkebunan kelapa sawit, terutama bila mengonversi hutan primer, berpotensi menyebabkan peningkatan emisi gas rumah kaca (GRK). Emisi GRK akibat penggundulan hutan dapat dikurangi melalui kebijakan nasional dipadukan dengan mekanisme perdagangan karbon internasional, seperti Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). Biaya investasi satu unit perkebunan sawit dengan luas efektif 6.000 ha dengan model PIR adalah sekitar Rp256,86 miliar pada tanah mineral dan Rp276,82 miliar pada lahan gambut. Untuk perkebunan besar, biaya investasinya Rp265,72 miliar pada tanah mineral dan Rp286,30 miliar pada lahan gambut. Bila harga minyak sawit mentah (CPO) Rp8.000/kg dan harga inti sawit Rp5.500/kg, pada suku bunga 15% perkebunan meraup keuntungan bersih Rp1.957.000/ha/tahun dengan model PIR dan Rp1.615.000/ha/tahun dengan model perkebunan besar pada lahan bertanah mineral. Apabila emisi dari perubahan penggunaan lahan hutan primer sampai satu siklus produksi perkebunan sawit pada lahan bertanah mineral adalah 41 t CO2/ha/tahun maka keuntungan yang hilang karena konservasi hutan untuk pengurangan emisi CO2 adalah US$5,19/t CO2 pada sistem PIR dan US$4,28/t CO2 pada perkebunan besar. Pada lahan gambut, keuntungan bersih menjadi Rp1.797.000/ha/ tahun dengan sistem PIR dan Rp1.468.000/ha/tahun pada perkebunan besar. Dengan perkiraan emisi pada lahan gambut rata-rata sebanyak 64 t CO2/ha/tahun maka keuntungan yang hilang berturut-turut adalah US$3,05 dan 2,49/t CO2 pada sistem PIR dan perkebunan besar. Hasil perkiraan keuntungan yang hilang dapat dijadikan acuan dasar perkiraan besaran kompensasi yang berhak diterima pemilik/penguasa hutan yang mengkonservasi hutannya.
Kata kunci: Kelapa sawit, lahan mineral, lahan gambut, keuntungan yang hilang, gas rumah kaca
Financial analysis and opportunity cost of carbon dioxide emission reduction in oil palm plantation
The area of oil palm plantation rapidly increases at a rate of 12.30% annually since early 1980s. Expansion of oil palm plantation, especially from forest conversion, entails a significant green house gas (GHG) emission. GHG emission from deforestation can be reduced through national policy in combination with the international carbon trading scheme such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). A unit of oil palm plantation of 6,000 ha effective area under the Nucleus Estate Smallholder (NES) model requires an investment of about IDR256.86 billion on the mineral land and IDR276.82 billion on peatland. Under the large estate plantation, the total investment is IDR265.72 billion on the mineral land and IDR286.30 billion on the peatland. If the price of crude palm oil (CPO) is IDR8,000/kg and kernel palm oil price is IDR5,500/kg, at 15% interest rate, the estate company gained a Net Present Value (NPV) of IDR1,957,000/ha/year from the NES model and IDR1,615,000/ha/ year from large plantation on the mineral land. If the average emission from primary forest conversion to one cycle of oil palm is about 41 t CO2/ha/year, then the opportunity cost from land conservation for emission reduction is US$5.19/t CO2 under NES and US$4.28/t CO2 under the estate plantation. For peatland, the NPV becomes IDR1,797,000/ha/year under NES and IDR1,468,000/ha/year under the estate plantation. With the estimated average emission rate of about 64 t CO2/ha/year, the opportunity costs become US$3.05 and 2.49/t CO2 under the NES and estate, respectively. The estimated opportunity cost can be used as a basis for negotiating the amount of compensation that the land owners deserve for conserving the forest lands.
Keywords: Oil palms, mineral lands, peatlands, opportunity costs, greenhouse gases
PROSPEK PENGEMBANGAN RICE ESTATE DI KABUPATEN MERAUKE :
TINJAUAN DARI ASPEK PENGELOLAAN TANAH DAN AIR
Prospect of Rice Estate Development in Merauke Regency:
A View from Soil and Water Management Aspects
I G.M. Subiksa
Balai Penelitian Tanah, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 98, Bogor 16123
Pengembangan rice estate sebagai instrumen untuk mewujudkan Kabupaten Merauke sebagai lumbung pangan di Kawasan Timur Indonesia telah dimulai dengan disusunnya master plan pengembangan rice estate. Dalam master plan tersebut, telah didelineasi 206 unit kawasan pengembangan yang tiap unitnya meliputi areal seluas 5.000 ha. Pengembangan rice estate memerlukan perencanaan pengelolaan tanah dan air yang cermat untuk mencapai produktivitas lahan yang tinggi dan berkelanjutan tanpa merusak lingkungan. Teknologi pengelolaan tanah dan air yang tepat diyakini menjadi kunci keberhasilan pengembangan kawasan. Hal ini mengingat sebagian besar lahan yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan merupakan lahan rawa. Kondisi topografi lahan yang datar dan karakteristik iklim serta hidrologi yang spesifik dan beragam, menyebabkan sistem pengelolaan tanah dan air akan sangat spesifik lokasi. Model rancang bangun rice estate yang dikembangkan sebaiknya sistem integrasi tanaman ternak berbasis padi, karena ternak ruminansia dapat saling bersinergi dengan padi mewujudkan sistem pertanian berkelanjutan dengan input luar rendah. Ameliorasi, pemupukan berimbang dan pengelolaan bahan organik menjadi komponen teknologi yang sangat menentukan keberhasilan pengembangan rice estate. Tulisan ini mengulas prospek pengembangan rice estate ditinjau dari aspek pengolahan tanah dan air, pengelolaan bahan organik dan pemupukan berimbang di Kabupaten Merauke Papua.
Kata kunci : Rice estate, pengelolaan tanah dan air, ameliorasi, pemupukan berimbang
NUTRIENT BALANCE AND VEGETABLE CROP PRODUCTION AS AFFECTEDBY DIFFERENT SOURCES OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS
Fahmuddin Agus1*, Diah Setyorini1, Wiwik Hartatik1, Sang-Min Lee2,Jwa-Kyung Sung2, and Jae-Hoon Shin2
1Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Jln. Juanda 98, Bogor 16123, Indonesia
2National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) RDA, Suwon 441-707, Korea
Understanding the net nutrient balance in a farming system is crucial in assessing the system sustainability. We quantified N, P and K balances under vegetable organic farming in a Eutric Hapludand in West Java, Indonesia in five planting seasons from 2005 to 2007. The ten treatments and three replications, arranged in a completely randomized block design, included single or combined sources of organic fertilizers: barnyard manure, composts or green manures. The organic matter rates were adjusted every planting season depending on the previous crop responses. The results showed that the application of 20 t ha-1 barnyard manure per crop resulted in positive balances of N, P, and K, except in the second crops of 2006 where potassium balance were -25 to -11 kg ha-1 under the treatments involving cattle barnyard manure, because of low K content of these treatments and high K uptake by Chinese cabbage. Application of 20 to 25 t ha-1 of plant residue or 5 t ha-1 of Tithonia compost also resulted in a negative K balance. Soil available P increased significantly under 25 t ha-1 barnyard manure and that under chicken manure had the highest available P. Accordingly, chicken barnyard manure gave the highest crop yield because of relatively higher N, P and K contents. Plant residues gave the lowest yield due to the lowest nutrient content among all sources. Reducing the use of barnyard manure to 12.5 t ha-1 and substituting it with Tithonia compost, Tithonia green manure or vegetable plant residue compost gave insignificantly different yield compared to the application of 25 t ha-1 barnyard manure singly. In the long run, application of 25 t ha-1 cattle, goat, and horse manure or about 20 t ha-1 chicken manure is recommendable for sustaining the fertility of this Andisol for vegetable production.
Key words: Nutrient balance, vegetable crops, barnyard manure, organic farming, Andisol
Makalah diterbitkan pada Korean Journal of Soil Science Fertilizer. 42(1). 1-13 (2009)
DISSOLVED SILICA DYNAMICS AND PHYTOPLANKTON POPULATION IN CITARUM WATERSHED, INDONESIA
Husnain 1*, Toshiyuki Wakatsuki 2 and Tsugiyuki Masunaga 3
1Laboratory of Soils and Ecological Engineering, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504, Japan.
3Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shimane University,Matsue 690- 8504, Japan.
2Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505, Japan.*e-mail:
Silicon is an essential and a beneficial nutrient for aquatic and terrestrial primary producers, respectively. Previous research reported that low silica available in lowland sawahs (a leveled and bounded rice field with an inlet and outlet for irrigation and drainage) in the Citarum watershed was partially associated with low dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations in irrigation water. DSi dynamics and the effect of phytoplankton were studied in the reservoirs of three major dams on Citarum River. The concentrations of DSi and other essential nutrients, as well as phytoplankton diversity and density, were monitored at several sites in the Citarum basin from September 2006 to November 2007. DSi concentrations were highest in the upstream reaches, including the furthest upstream reservoir (Saguling), and decreased downstream. Dams contributed to a decrease of approximately 49-58% in DSi concentrations. The DSi reduction is associated with rising diatom densities (P<0.05), which utilize silica in the construction of frustules. The lowest DSi concentration was measured in Jatiluhur reservoir where diatoms were very abundant. High NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations in upstream and reservoirs which ranged from 1.3 to 18.3 mg L-1 and 0.06 to 2.3 mg L-1, respectively, were probably derived from drainage of industries and houses in upstream and feeding materials used for fish culture in the reservoirs. This condition may enhance the growth of phytoplankton including diatom. Diatom was a major species in the reservoirs, while Cyanophyceae was dominant in all segments of Citarum River. Increasing diatom population could retain more DSi as diatom accumulate abundant silica in its cell wall and depleted Si supply from irrigation water into sawah in lowland.
Key words: dam, diatom, DSi, phytoplankton, reservoir, silica retention.
Makalah diterbitkan pada Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment Vol.7 (3&4) : - . 2009
HUSNAIN1,3, Toshiyuki WAKATSUKI2, Diah SETYORINI3, HERMANSAH4, Kuniaki SATO1 and Tsugiyuki MASUNAGA1
1Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504, 2Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505, Japan, 3Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Bogor 16123, and 4Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang 25163, Indonesia
Silicon is a beneficial element for rice plants and is one of the major factors affecting the sustainability of rice production. We investigated silica (Si) availability and dynamics in soils of sawah, other land uses, and also in river and canal water in two watersheds in Citarum and Kaligarang, Java Island, Indonesia. The term sawah refers to a leveled and bounded rice field with an inlet and an outlet for irrigation and drainage, respectively. In the present study, we examined Si content in soils, plants and river water in relation to factors influencing the Si content, such as parent material and land use. The available Si content in sawah was found to be deficient at two sites and low at 10 sites out of 16 sites investigated in the Citarum watershed. In the Kaligarang watershed, no sawah site was classified as deficient and nine out of the 15 sawah sites were determined to be low for rice plant growth. A survey of Si content in rice flag leaves in some selected rice fields showed that seven out of 12 samples had contents less than 125 g SiO2 kg1; these rice samples with low Si contents were those in sawah classified as low in Si contents. In the Citarum watershed, sawah soils developed from the accumulation of lake and clay sediment contained relatively little available Si, while sawah soils in the Kaligarang watershed that were mainly developed from tuff and volcanic ash contained relatively more available Si. In the Citarum watershed, the type of land use influenced Si availability in the soils via a large amount of litter accumulation of pine trees in the case of pine plantations, and acidification in the soils in the case of tea plantations and maize fields. In general, the Si content in river and canal water was higher in the Kaligarang watershed than in the Citarum watershed, and this appears to be affected by the type of parent material. In addition to the type of parent material, Si depletion occurring in dams might also influence Si content in the lower stream of river or canal water in the Citarum watershed.
Key words: available silica, parent material, rice, sawah, silica deficiency.
Makalah diterbitkan pada Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (2008) 54, 916927
F. Agus, Irawan, H. Suganda, Wahyunto, A. Setiyanto, M. Kundarto
e: 10pt; color: #141314; font-family: Arial">F. Agus, Irawan, H. Suganda, Wahyunto: Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Jln. Juanda 98, Bogor 16123, Indonesia;
A. Setiyanto: Center for Agricultural Socio-Economic Research, Bogor, Indonesia
M. Kundarto: UPN Veteran, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Industrial and urban developments in Indonesia focus on the economic merits, but neglect agricultural services that, when disappear, will destabilize the environmental and livelihood systems. A series of 5-year study has evaluated various aspects of multifunctionality and implications of paddy field conversion on the disappearance of multifunctionality. Soil loss from a series of 18 terraced paddy fields in central Java is negligible. Only a few terraces located along the streams directly caused sedimentation. The functions of flood mitigation, water-resource conservation, erosion reduction, organic waste disposal, heat mitigation, and rural amenity of paddy fields in Citarum watershed in West Java were significant. The replacement cost of such functions was about 51% ($92.67 million yr-1) of the total price of rice of $181.34 million y-1 produced in the 156,000 ha paddy field. This amount could be considered as free services by the farmers to the society. However, because of society negligence and unawareness, conversion has been accelerating while development of newpaddy fields has been decelerating in the last few years. Low and fluctuating price of agricultural products, unavailability or non-affordability of agricultural supplies and inaccessibility to market are among the major disincentives faced by farmers. Because of appreciable multifunctionality they produce, farmers deserve various incentives for the sake of environmental sustainability and other services.
Keywords Flood mitigation; Water-resource conservation; Erosion reduction; Organic waste disposal; Heat mitigation . Rural amenity
Makalah diterbitkan pada Paddy Water Environ (2006) 4:181-188